Rocky Linux 9 内核升级至 6.0

默认情况下 Rocky Linux 9.1 内核是5.14版本,目前最新版本的内核为6.0,所以这里我们将对应内核升级至6.0
注:此升级方式不仅仅适用于 Rocky Linux 9,也适用于 Rocky Linux 8,以及所有 Red Hat 系 Linux 操作系统。

升级内核

确认现有内核版本,导入公钥,安装ELRepo,再升级对应内核。

# 查看当前内核版本
[root@localhost ~]# uname -r
5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64

# 载入公钥
[root@localhost ~]# rpm --import https://www.elrepo.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-elrepo.org

# 安装ELRepo
[root@localhost ~]# dnf install https://www.elrepo.org/elrepo-release-9.el9.elrepo.noarch.rpm
Last metadata expiration check: 2:15:48 ago on Tue Nov 29 16:11:08 2022.
elrepo-release-9.el9.elrepo.noarch.rpm                                                                                                       13 kB/s |  12 kB     00:00    
Dependencies resolved.
============================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                    Architecture                       Version                                       Repository                                Size
============================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 elrepo-release                             noarch                             9.1-1.el9.elrepo                              @commandline                              12 k

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================================================
Install  1 Package

Total size: 12 k
Installed size: 5.0 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                                                    1/1 
  Installing       : elrepo-release-9.1-1.el9.elrepo.noarch                                                                                                             1/1 
  Verifying        : elrepo-release-9.1-1.el9.elrepo.noarch                                                                                                             1/1 

Installed:
  elrepo-release-9.1-1.el9.elrepo.noarch                                                                                                                                    

Complete!

# 载入elrepo-kernel元数据
[root@localhost ~]# dnf --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=elrepo-kernel repolist
repo id                                                       repo name
elrepo-kernel                                                 ELRepo.org Community Enterprise Linux Kernel Repository - el9

# 查看可用内核包
[root@localhost ~]# dnf --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=elrepo-kernel list kernel*
ELRepo.org Community Enterprise Linux Kernel Repository - el9                                                                               354 kB/s | 1.0 MB     00:02    
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:01 ago on Tue Nov 29 18:28:07 2022.
Installed Packages
kernel.x86_64                                                                         5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0                                                     @baseos      
kernel.x86_64                                                                         5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                                                     @baseos      
kernel-core.x86_64                                                                    5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0                                                     @baseos      
kernel-core.x86_64                                                                    5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                                                     @baseos      
kernel-modules.x86_64                                                                 5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0                                                     @baseos      
kernel-modules.x86_64                                                                 5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                                                     @baseos      
kernel-tools.x86_64                                                                   5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                                                     @baseos      
kernel-tools-libs.x86_64                                                              5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                                                     @baseos      
Available Packages
kernel-ml.x86_64                                                                      6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-core.x86_64                                                                 6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-devel.x86_64                                                                6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-devel-matched.x86_64                                                        6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-doc.noarch                                                                  6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-headers.x86_64                                                              6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-modules.x86_64                                                              6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-modules-extra.x86_64                                                        6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-tools.x86_64                                                                6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-tools-libs.x86_64                                                           6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel
kernel-ml-tools-libs-devel.x86_64                                                     6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                                                      elrepo-kernel

# 安装最新版本的kernel
[root@localhost ~]# dnf --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=elrepo-kernel install -y kernel-ml.x86_64
Last metadata expiration check: 0:00:36 ago on Tue Nov 29 18:28:07 2022.
Dependencies resolved.
============================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                     Architecture                     Version                                         Repository                               Size
============================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 kernel-ml                                   x86_64                           6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                             elrepo-kernel                            12 k
Installing dependencies:
 kernel-ml-core                              x86_64                           6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                             elrepo-kernel                            56 M
 kernel-ml-modules                           x86_64                           6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                             elrepo-kernel                            51 M

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================================================
Install  3 Packages

Total download size: 107 M
Installed size: 148 M
Downloading Packages:
(1/3): kernel-ml-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.rpm                                                                                              22 kB/s |  12 kB     00:00    
(2/3): kernel-ml-core-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.rpm                                                                                        407 kB/s |  56 MB     02:21    
(3/3): kernel-ml-modules-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.rpm                                                                                     161 kB/s |  51 MB     05:24    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                                                                       338 kB/s | 107 MB     05:25     
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                                                    1/1 
  Installing       : kernel-ml-core-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                          1/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-ml-core-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                          1/3 
  Installing       : kernel-ml-modules-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                       2/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-ml-modules-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                       2/3 
  Installing       : kernel-ml-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                               3/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-ml-core-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                          3/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-ml-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                               3/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-ml-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                               1/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-ml-core-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                          2/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-ml-modules-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                       3/3 

Installed:
  kernel-ml-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                kernel-ml-core-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                kernel-ml-modules-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64               

Complete!

# 删除旧版本工具包
[root@localhost ~]# dnf remove kernel-tools-libs.x86_64 kernel-tools.x86_64
Dependencies resolved.
============================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                      Architecture                      Version                                           Repository                           Size
============================================================================================================================================================================
Removing:
 kernel-tools                                 x86_64                            5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                              @baseos                             769 k
 kernel-tools-libs                            x86_64                            5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                              @baseos                              30 k
Removing unused dependencies:
 pciutils-libs                                x86_64                            3.7.0-5.el9                                       @minimal                             79 k

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================================================
Remove  3 Packages

Freed space: 878 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                                                    1/1 
  Erasing          : kernel-tools-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                           1/3 
  Erasing          : kernel-tools-libs-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                      2/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-tools-libs-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                      2/3 
  Erasing          : pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64                                                                                                                   3/3 
  Running scriptlet: pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64                                                                                                                   3/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-tools-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                           1/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-tools-libs-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                      2/3 
  Verifying        : pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64                                                                                                                   3/3 

Removed:
  kernel-tools-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                  kernel-tools-libs-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                  pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64                 

Complete!

# 安装新版本内核工具包
[root@localhost ~]# dnf --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=elrepo-kernel install -y kernel-ml-tools.x86_64
Last metadata expiration check: 0:08:00 ago on Tue Nov 29 18:28:07 2022.
Error: 
 Problem: cannot install the best candidate for the job
  - nothing provides libpci.so.3()(64bit) needed by kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64
  - nothing provides libpci.so.3(LIBPCI_3.0)(64bit) needed by kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64
  - nothing provides libpci.so.3(LIBPCI_3.3)(64bit) needed by kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64
  - nothing provides libpci.so.3(LIBPCI_3.5)(64bit) needed by kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64
(try to add '--skip-broken' to skip uninstallable packages or '--nobest' to use not only best candidate packages)

# 因为在卸载旧版本的内核工具包的时候,删除了pciutils-libs,造成安装新版本的内核工具包时报错,所以我们需要先安装pciutils-libs,再安装新版本的内核工具包。
[root@localhost ~]# dnf install pciutils-libs
ELRepo.org Community Enterprise Linux Repository - el9                                                                                       51 kB/s | 117 kB     00:02    
Dependencies resolved.
============================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                      Architecture                          Version                                     Repository                             Size
============================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 pciutils-libs                                x86_64                                3.7.0-5.el9                                 baseos                                 41 k

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================================================
Install  1 Package

Total download size: 41 k
Installed size: 79 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                        120 kB/s |  41 kB     00:00    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                                                                       117 kB/s |  41 kB     00:00     
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                                                    1/1 
  Installing       : pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64                                                                                                                   1/1 
  Running scriptlet: pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64                                                                                                                   1/1 
  Verifying        : pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64                                                                                                                   1/1 

Installed:
  pciutils-libs-3.7.0-5.el9.x86_64                                                                                                                                          

Complete!

# 再安装新版本的内核工具包
[root@localhost ~]# dnf --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo=elrepo-kernel install -y kernel-ml-tools.x86_64
Last metadata expiration check: 0:09:51 ago on Tue Nov 29 18:28:07 2022.
Dependencies resolved.
============================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                       Architecture                    Version                                         Repository                              Size
============================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 kernel-ml-tools                               x86_64                          6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                             elrepo-kernel                          248 k
Installing dependencies:
 kernel-ml-tools-libs                          x86_64                          6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo                             elrepo-kernel                           22 k

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================================================
Install  2 Packages

Total download size: 270 k
Installed size: 956 k
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): kernel-ml-tools-libs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.rpm                                                                                   28 kB/s |  22 kB     00:00    
(2/2): kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.rpm                                                                                        30 kB/s | 248 kB     00:08    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                                                                        31 kB/s | 270 kB     00:08     
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                                                    1/1 
  Installing       : kernel-ml-tools-libs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                    1/2 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-ml-tools-libs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                    1/2 
  Installing       : kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                         2/2 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                         2/2 
  Verifying        : kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                         1/2 
  Verifying        : kernel-ml-tools-libs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                                                                                    2/2 

Installed:
  kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                         kernel-ml-tools-libs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64                                        

Complete!

设置内核启动顺序

设置默认启动顺序,通过grubby --info=ALL命令获取目前所有启动项,然后通过grub2-set-default命令设置或者通过grubby --set-default设置对应启动项。

# 查看所有内核启动项
[root@localhost ~]# grubby --info=ALL
index=0
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64.img"
title="Rocky Linux (5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64) 9.0 (Blue Onyx)"
id="0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64"
index=1
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-0-rescue-0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7.img"
title="Rocky Linux (0-rescue-0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7) 9.0 (Blue Onyx)"
id="0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7-0-rescue"
index=2
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.img"
title="Rocky Linux (6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64) 9.1 (Blue Onyx)"
id="bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64"
index=3
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64.img"
title="Rocky Linux (5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64) 9.1 (Blue Onyx)"

# 这里看到内核 6.0 索引为2,所以这里设置默认内核为2
[root@localhost ~]# grubby --set-default 2
The default is /boot/loader/entries/bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.conf with index 2 and kernel /boot/vmlinuz-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64

# 查看默认内核
[root@localhost ~]# grubby --default-kernel
/boot/vmlinuz-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64

# 重启服务器
[root@localhost ~]# reboot

# 查看启动内核为6.0
[root@localhost ~]# uname -r
6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64

删除旧内核

在这里我们保留系统上安装的最后两个内核并删除多余的旧内核。木子已经明确定义了installonly_limit=2使用--setopt来覆盖/etc/dnf/dnf.conf中的默认配置。如果您不指定installonly_limit参数,那么默认情况下dnf remove命令将采用/etc/dnf/dnf.conf中的installonly_limit值。

# 对应的limit值,可以修改配置文件
[root@localhost ~]# grep limit /etc/dnf/dnf.conf
installonly_limit=3

# 删除多余内核,只保留最后两个
[root@localhost ~]# dnf remove --oldinstallonly --setopt installonly_limit=2 kernel
Dependencies resolved.
============================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                    Architecture                       Version                                            Repository                           Size
============================================================================================================================================================================
Removing:
 kernel                                     x86_64                             5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0                               @baseos                               0  
 kernel-core                                x86_64                             5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0                               @baseos                              73 M
 kernel-modules                             x86_64                             5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0                               @baseos                              20 M

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================================================
Remove  3 Packages

Freed space: 93 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                                                    1/1 
  Erasing          : kernel-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                                 1/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                                 1/3 
  Erasing          : kernel-modules-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                         2/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-modules-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                         2/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-core-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                            3/3 
  Erasing          : kernel-core-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                            3/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-core-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                            3/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                                 1/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-core-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                            2/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-modules-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                                                                                                         3/3 

Removed:
  kernel-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                  kernel-core-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                  kernel-modules-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64                 

Complete!

# 这里我们看到还有两个内核,其中6.0是现在在用的,5.14.0-162是之前使用的
[root@localhost ~]# rpm -qa | grep kernel
kernel-core-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64
kernel-modules-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64
kernel-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64
kernel-ml-core-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64
kernel-ml-modules-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64
kernel-ml-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64
kernel-ml-tools-libs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64
kernel-ml-tools-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64

只保留现正使用的内核

正常情况下installonly_limit参数是不允许设置值为1的,那么如果我们只想保留目前正在使用的内核,删除其它所有多余的内核,怎么办了?

# 如果您只想保留当前活动内核,这样是不允许的。
[root@localhost ~]# dnf -y remove --oldinstallonly --setopt installonly_limit=1 kernel
Config error: Error parsing --setopt with key 'installonly_limit', value '1': value 1 is not allowed

# 删除内核5.14.0-162
[root@localhost ~]# dnf remove kernel-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64 kernel-core-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64 kernel-modules-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64 
Dependencies resolved.
============================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                    Architecture                       Version                                            Repository                           Size
============================================================================================================================================================================
Removing:
 kernel                                     x86_64                             5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                               @baseos                               0  
 kernel-core                                x86_64                             5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                               @baseos                              84 M
 kernel-modules                             x86_64                             5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1                               @baseos                              31 M

Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================================================================
Remove  3 Packages

Freed space: 114 M
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Preparing        :                                                                                                                                                    1/1 
  Erasing          : kernel-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                                 1/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                                 1/3 
  Erasing          : kernel-modules-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                         2/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-modules-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                         2/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-core-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                            3/3 
  Erasing          : kernel-core-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                            3/3 
  Running scriptlet: kernel-core-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                            3/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                                 1/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-core-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                            2/3 
  Verifying        : kernel-modules-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                                                                                                         3/3 

Removed:
  kernel-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                  kernel-core-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                  kernel-modules-5.14.0-162.6.1.el9_1.x86_64                 

Complete!

# 查看目前所有启动配置
[root@localhost ~]# grubby --info=ALL
index=0
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64.img"
title="Rocky Linux (5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64) 9.0 (Blue Onyx)"
id="0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64"
index=1
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-0-rescue-0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7.img"
title="Rocky Linux (0-rescue-0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7) 9.0 (Blue Onyx)"
id="0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7-0-rescue"
index=2
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.img"
title="Rocky Linux (6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64) 9.1 (Blue Onyx)"
id="bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64"
index=3
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-0-rescue-bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc.img"
title="Rocky Linux (0-rescue-bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc) 9.1 (Blue Onyx)"
id="bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc-0-rescue"

# 删除不需要的内核启动项
[root@localhost ~]# grubby --remove-kernel=/boot/vmlinuz-5.14.0-70.30.1.el9_0.x86_64
[root@localhost ~]# grubby --remove-kernel=/boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-0af0a3c0bc4946a6bb4cc8daa8c8a1f7

# 这时候我们看到只保留了 6.0 相关内核启动项了
[root@localhost ~]# grubby --info=ALL
index=0
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64.img"
title="Rocky Linux (6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64) 9.1 (Blue Onyx)"
id="bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc-6.0.10-1.el9.elrepo.x86_64"
index=1
kernel="/boot/vmlinuz-0-rescue-bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc"
args="ro crashkernel=1G-4G:192M,4G-64G:256M,64G-:512M resume=/dev/mapper/rl-swap rd.lvm.lv=rl/root rd.lvm.lv=rl/swap ipv6.disable=1 selinux=0"
root="/dev/mapper/rl-root"
initrd="/boot/initramfs-0-rescue-bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc.img"
title="Rocky Linux (0-rescue-bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc) 9.1 (Blue Onyx)"
id="bae8b9faf30f473196d3a871e300f4dc-0-rescue"
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关于 木子

Founder of the Rocky Linux Chinese community, MVP、VMware vExpert、TVP, advocate for cloud native technologies, with over ten years of experience in site reliability engineering (SRE) and the DevOps field. Passionate about Cloud Computing、Microservices、CI&CD、DevOps、Kubernetes, currently dedicated to promoting and implementing Rocky Linux in Chinese-speaking regions.
用一杯咖啡支持我们,每一篇 [文档] 都经过我们实操,并非从网上一味的copy,期间花费了大量的心思,希望能够帮忙到您。

评论

  1. 已编辑
    4天前
    2024-2-27 9:47:54

    1、ml是mainline版本的内容,内容较新,无需要的话,可以考虑lt是longterm长期支持的版本。对于Rocky8来说,dnf install elrepo-release来获取kernel的包。
    2、一般都是建议保存2个版本的内核,防止内核不兼容导致无法正常启动,所以5.4的内核不建议立即删除,稳定后再删除
    仅做补充说明,如有错误请指正

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